General Description and History
Function of Architecture
Use in Industrial Facilities
Structural Form and Visual Impact
Components Of The Space Lattice System
The Main Use Of The System In Space Lattice
Space Frame System Advantages
Cost Of Space Lattice System Advantages
The Technical Specifications Of The Space Lattice
Space Frame Geometry Of The System Together and Node Details
 
 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION and HISTORY SPACE CAGE SYSTEM

Structures in tech, lightweight, quick solutions, and industry has lead to the search space lattice systems has been rising. These systems and lightweight structures with large openings of the column by providing a structure to be passed by as a functional structure to be more flexible and has provided useful.

 

Space lattice systems, connected to each other node points, or pressure employees to draw a simple linear rods installed in the network are organized. These rods scheme, in line with effects on both the external loads of space to organize and be forwarded to the dog according to the principles of modern systems are produced. Normally static lattice structure of space, forcing konstrüktif go, the structural formation of the possibilities, large angle of structures are resolved to be covered.

Awaji Yumebutai Greenhouse

 
Static in terms of benefits, this system is a multi-carrier system compared to others are much more lightweight. Not only in the framework of the lack of a fixed load, the system shows itself to elements of the basis, depending on the cost is reduced significantly. Space lattice structure of today in Turkey with great openness of the industrial structure rather than the application area to be covered to find. 

With the advancement of technology, these systems are up to 100 m can be covered openings. This structure of the system frame, rectangle, polygon and circular forms of cover appropriate to the space can be created. The most widely used in sports halls, aircraft hangars and industrial buildings are. In particular, this system easily take advantage of industry structure, the positive mass and architectural expression is gained.
     
Space is very large cage structure also provides formal opportunities. The plane surfaces and the floor can be developed, such as the dome and forms and their tonozsal again as can be established. Lattice structure of space in equipment placement can provide useful Holder. Electricity, plumbing, ventilation channels, air conditioning, iklimleme accessories such as systems, this system in space arising from the formation of policy itself can easily find the location. These accessories can be included in every direction. Electrical connections were made from bars. Provision of daylight in the same space can be easily resolved by creating the window items.  

Gosyun Bridge Architects: CENTRAL CONSULTANT INC. Construction: Murayama

Cage systems design and engineering calculations required space is made to move every load. As you can see in the picture is constantly on the bridge and moving load carrier system of the space lattice is chosen as.

Dr. Max Mengeringhausen (1903-1988)

Dr. Developed systems and 1940'lı Max Mengeringhausen space in the lattice structure was used. 

Mengeringhausen "Bauhaus" school of architecture emerged with clarity, beauty and functionality of the best examples of developing aerospace systems, has put pen.  


In 1919 Weimar'da established Mengeringhausen "Bauhaus" and had a close relationship. Wassily Kandinsky in 1925, Lyonel Feininger, Paul Klee by artists such as Dessau'ya yaşadığı moved. I. After World War by Walter Gropius and Mies Van Der Rohe managed "Bauhaus" architecture and home decoration have become pioneers of the restructuring.  

The Gropius Bauhaus'un founder, Mengeringhausen'i in 1930, "Siemensstadt Housing Area" project, made the team manager and project has adopted the following policy: "We realized in the architecture of our time of great change to show a new way must be found." The ideas put Bauhaus'un clarity, is to combine beauty and functionality. This understanding and working within a developed later Mengeringhausen bar / node systems may also owes gratitude to Gropius'a.

 

 Mengeringhausen'in developed bar / node (lattice space) system is the first structure built in 1942. Bar / node system in a short time in the big programs in industrial production systems have become.

 

 Space lattice systems unit personnel carriers, six bars and a four-node point dörtyüzlüdür. 'Such a same plane in each of the three dörtyüzlü bars can be easily grown. Bar combinations, in assembly provides the people of various patented easy node elements are made with.

 

Polyhedral (polyheral) structure of the three-way version of the glider wing aircraft in 1907 as a system that uses beams of Alexander Graham Bell has been leading in the emergence of the system. In the Dr 1940'lı. By developing this system Max Mengeringhausen use in the space lattice structure of the system launched.

 

Human and Mechanical Functions

Human and mechanical function of external factors to maintain and will host structures by designing the structure of the functions be left exposed to any adverse effects will be asked. As a result of this request with a large open structures are needed.
 
 United will host the functions of the open structure vary, but to ensure clarity of the solutions is limited. Space lattice systems with the creation of large openings is often used structure system. The following are used in the space lattice structure of the system as a cause of the functional space needs with the greatest clarity and space requirements of the lattice system is specified. 
   

Industrial Structures

Industrial structures and production related to the production process is realized with the relationship between the space. Production processes must take place sometimes during the same structure sometimes may occur side by side in separate buildings. The important thing is efficiency and the effectiveness of the production is able to deliver functional layout. That the functional placement of the major benefits of space lattice system occurs. Large area without the column, these systems can cover an unlimited locations for production (lay out) offers opportunities. Plant input and product output for the hammam of the logistics warehouse space in the cage system use, transport and storage function allows you to perform the most effective and efficient way.  

Showroom Structures

Architecture to function as the ideal environment to exhibit showroomlar product should have. All products can be seen in a large space and space efficient design that creates for the customer appeal. The location of the company's image in the design effect is an important factor. Space lattice systems exhibit space showroomlarda unlimited right to use the exhibition space in the design of activities to contribute to the company's image. 

Exhibitions and fairs Structures

Exhibitions and fairs as well as field work or product showroomlarda the most impressive way of showing is required. This places the greatest benefits of using space-cage systems for every exhibition and trade fair is to allow different layout. Duration is limited to a few days of exhibitions and fairs. The location of exhibitions and fairs that we "stand" s construction of the building site is like that. Construction for the effectiveness of this function within the volume of the column-free space that is a big advantage. Space lattice systems can be used again in another field sökülüp. Attractiveness of residential areas in case of lost opportunity structure to another area of space transportation systems is possible with cage.  

Transportation Structures

And moving the venue of actions are often functional. Transport of passengers and transport companies in this space where the visual signs and directions are important. It is important to detect the integrity of location and easy. Recently in major cities and tourism cities of the municipalities that live this kind of functionality and visual impact for prestigious public buildings to create a look that is rearranged. Space must have cage structures with transportation systems to provide this feature is used often. 

Sports Complexes

Sports games for the realization of wide-openness of the hall is inevitable for the area. The location is between the audience and sports fields to prevent the image carrier can not be a factor. These functional features of the sports complex structures that require large openings make use of the space lattice system makes it widely. 

Shopping Centers

Today's entertainment and shopping is provided with a closed shopping centers are becoming increasingly common. In this space, shopping, cinema, restaurants and services to be provided with space to improve the quality of the collector. Shopping centers and the collector to show properties to enhance the image must have the hole with great clarity. A certain openness of this space with broad appeal has the potential to increase the customer for the store.  
 

CAGE SPACE SIS. INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES USE IN

Industry structure; the production and production-related processes is realized with the relationship between the location. Production processes must take place sometimes during the same structure sometimes may occur side by side in separate buildings. The important thing is efficiency and the effectiveness of the production is able to deliver functional layout. That the functional placement of the major benefits of space lattice system occurs. Large area without the column, these systems can cover an unlimited locations for production (lay out) offers opportunities. Raw material input and output of plant products used for the logistics warehouse space in the transport and storage functions, the use of cage systems in place in the most effective and efficient way to provide. Industrial facilities will be achieved with the use of space lattice system benefits can be sorted as follows.

Benefits of functional

An industrial facility use of space lattice system is the most important reason is functional as Kazandıracakları structure. Production functions and processes of the most beautiful place created for a place (in the middle) to be the bearer of the column to be used for production in the limited space inside the settlement will bring Holder. To get rid of this column space with the lattice system is important for a plant. Competitive environment, according to the conditions of plant production processes and machines are renewed over time. Restructuring, development and change in the production planning area to stay connected to the carrier column will restrict the search for efficiency in production. Industrial facilities as a functional space lattice systems will bring benefits to the order as follows;

•  Production Allows for flexible placement 
•  Restructuring and editing for the free plan 
•  Machinery, equipment and production space limitations in the selection of bands is not 
•  Manufacturing location within the carrier vehicles (forklift) regulating the way for flexibility 
•  Warning signs and signs and the location of the router can be detected in all  
•  Executive team in place all the production is visually dominated by 
•  To increase the viewing angle of the work accident rate drops

As Build System Benefits

Space will be acquired by cages systems the ratio between the volume of building materials consumed and other building materials according to their consumption rate is quite appropriate. The cost structure is created with the volume size is inversely proportional. These systems, to eliminate the need for piers in the usually dry and the ground level with a variety of methods are mounted in place. The system consists of prefabricated parts, you are prompted by a new-to-use conversion can be disassembled. Therefore eliminated mold and staging costs, the construction of the rapid completion of the equipment layout in the economy sağlamaktadır.Uzay lattice structure can provide useful Holder. Electricity, plumbing, ventilation channels, air conditioning, iklimleme accessories such as systems, this system in space arising from the formation of policy itself can easily find the location. These accessories can be included in every direction. Electrical connections were made from bars. Provision of daylight in the same space can be easily resolved by creating the window items.

Earthquake Against Benefits

90% of Turkey is an earthquake zone. The west and the Gulf area of the industry settled almost 100% in the earthquake zone. The recent earthquakes of us live and system construction technology has been made in the unconscious choices. Facilities in the earthquake zone will be recommended for most secure system of the structure of steel and steel with the light and space lattice system solutions are hiperstatik. Space lattice systems are highly hiperstatik system. Load both the withdrawal and transfer, the pressure will work. The system does not force employees to bend the big move of the opening is provided in the structural trust. Space lattice systems with other building systems such as 50% at a rate that is more lightweight. Weight of the structure with the effects of the earthquake as a linear increase proportional to the earthquake is less than the space lattice systems are affected. According to the system more flexible and sünektir reinforced concrete structures.  

Cost Advantages

Static in terms of benefits, this system is a multi-carrier system compared to others are much more lightweight. Not only in the framework of the lack of a fixed load, the system shows itself to elements of the basis, depending on the cost is reduced significantly. Cost advantages of detailed information about me "cost advantages" section.
 
 Cage systems are created with space between the structure of the economy in the system to form a plane in general be solved with a simple result. But another aspect of the space lattice system to create column-free space outside and attractive form of display purposes to create space is used.  

CAGE AND VISUAL EFFECTS OF SPACE SYSTEMS FORM

Showroomların function in terms of architecture, fairs and exhibition areas, transportation structures, sports complexes and etc.. visual impact and will be asked to have different structural form. This structure was created in the space lattice system with the structural forms to create visual effects are often encountered.  

Industrial Plants For The Visual Impact and May Be Different Structural Forms Are Talking About ?

Industrial facilities with minimum cost and maximum revenue generation targets. Approached from this perspective, creating solutions for the industrial plant location as the most simple and economical solution is looked functional. But the product for maximum earnings target brand, prestige and image is also important. Therefore, on transportation routes and a lot of people in the past days in the facility for advertising and image building and visual effects of different forms aranmaktadır. Plants in front of people, even as catalogs, magazines, newspapers, TV, etc.. often appear in ads or to research facilities for the nature of the structural features and have shown examples of spoken and may be required. Big brands like to tell you about their own structures and structures with emphasis on the visual effect is of the face. Especially at the entrance of buildings with high and great clarity and aesthetics to create a place covered with a mask system to increase the prestige of the building.
 

Space lattice systems unit personnel carriers, six bars and a four-node point dörtyüzlüdür. In such a plane does not have the same three bars dörtyüzlü each can be easily grown.  

Main Parts of the system: Rods

Bar combinations, in assembly provides the people of various patented easy node elements are made with. Rods, are the items in the correct format. Of steel rods of aluminum, but also create cheaper than aluminum and more resistant due to the usually steel is used in this system. Top headlines, combining the peak of the pyramid rods and are generally organized to pressure workers. Subheads is usually to try to pull the bottom of the pyramid points and bars are combining. Vertical and diagonal of the load transmitted to the node at the same time, pressure and try to pull the bars are required. 

Create Space Lattice Structure of The Items

Rods, Node points Of dog, Basics, Covers materials in this case. Bars in the correct format to connect node grid is called by various geometric surfaces can be created.

Node Locations: Knot points, bars, trace the merger point. Are usually formed steel. According to the production system in a variety of different properties with the help of the node points, diagonally and perpendicular to the incoming loads are transferred to the dog. Node with the production of the various methods are available. Balon, welding, riveting and produced specifically for this purpose during the parts that can be inserted sökülüp. Node points, space is more important compared to the bars of the cage structure of the items. A point bar in a very crucial point by combining the system as a whole provides.
Dog Of The Dog: You connect it to the floor for the item. Hard, linear and radial motion generated type dog. Directly to the carrier system to the cage floor space (based on) can sit, such as support columns or walls and completely bars next to each other node to be produced using a cage system sit.
 
 Regulation of individual and several neighboring nodes, point bars, the bars on dog. Collected a bunch of bars on the column is full. Solid walls or beams are generated on the edge mesnetlemesinde, often combined with a link to each node point (level and horizontal V-shaped arrangement of a single bar or bars) and individual dog. 
Basic: The basic system; column of support walls or sat on the edge of the floor space of the lattice system directly, concrete foundations are created by the anchors to be. Concrete foundations, applicable space lattice system size, depending on the type of format and are organized in various ways.
 Cover: Wrapping operation can be performed in different ways and with different materials. In general, the system was installed after the roof, lightweight aluminum or galvanized steel plate with corrugated sheet is wrapped, the heat and water layer is applied and finished with a protective product. The most important point of water insulation is perfect.
 
This carrier system with a single, double or multi-layer plane or curved surfaces can be created. Curved surfaces are usually single-layer, the plane surfaces are made as double or multi-layer. Of cage space, the plane is designed as a surface and the system can exceed the height of openings 100m'ye until late in the opening ratio (H / L) approximately 1 / 20 - 1 / 30 'stop. These systems, to eliminate the need for piers in the usually dry and the ground level with a variety of methods are mounted in place. The system consists of prefabricated parts, you are prompted by a new-to-use conversion can be disassembled. Therefore, mold and scaffold costs are eliminated, the economy is the construction of the rapid completion.

 Space lattice structures only a few of the numerous places in the very widely used for various purposes are also.
 
-Factory and Warehouse Buildings, Aircraft Hangar and Truck of the garage, Terminal Buildings, Parking and petrol station to shed 
-Shopping centers, Supermarkets, Convenience and market places 
-Sports Hall, Indoor Swimming Pool, Tennis Court, Equestrian Manege and Multi-Purpose Sports Facility 
-Stadium, Off the Roof Turbines 
-Cinema, Theater, Conference Hall, the show centers, wedding, or multi-purpose halls 
-Top and Tube Gates  
-Off Market. Cold air tanks.

  • Space lattice systems as other classical and structured according to the conventional system is more rigid and lightweight.
  • Manufacturing and assembly time is short, contractors and business owners to provide a significant advantage.
  • The system is completely prefabricated in the factory location for the site was occupied for manufacturing are electricity costs, are savings in overhead costs.
  • Also, very fast, such as manufacturing or assembly of large systems can be made very quickly is the biggest cause of preference. Sometimes using a mobile crane through the installation of an area of 5000 m2 will be completed 15 days of the space lattice assembly.
  • Space lattice systems, structure and geometry of the shape of a very different structure according to the architects to provide alternatives.
  • The square, triangle, hexagon-based systems as well as cage space, vault, dome, pyramid structure, such as the type of alternative system of the space lattice easily be solved with the architect to bring great comfort.
  • Moreover, the system can be painted in desired colors easily unusual appearance of the buildings have to make.
  • Besides, aluminum, stainless steel and wood options with a very modern and impressive structure of the world architects have signed.
  • Elements of the connection point on the lattice structure of space will be opened thanks to the extra hole upper cladding, suspended ceiling, facade coverings and all types of service load to be easily mounted to act as a natural dog.
  • For this case, the structure will have a lot by eliminating the need for additional construction work is being completed as more economical.
  • Another feature of the system according to the concrete roof and a pair of scissors is more lightweight.
  • mainly because of low load carriers and basic cross-section column in the manufacturing economy is shrinking investment by stages.

 

Benefits of Functional

An industrial facility use of space lattice system is the most important reason is functional as Kazandıracakları structure. Production functions and processes of the most beautiful place created for a place (in the middle) to be the bearer of the column to be used for production in the limited space inside the settlement will bring Holder. To get rid of this column space with the lattice system is important for a plant. Competitive environment, according to the conditions of plant production processes and machines are renewed over time. Restructuring, development and change in the production planning area to stay connected to the carrier column will restrict the search for efficiency in production. Industrial facilities as a functional space lattice systems will bring benefits to the order as follows;

•Production Allows for flexible placement

•Restructuring and editing for the free plan

•Machinery, equipment and production space limitations in the selection of bands is not

•Manufacturing location within the carrier vehicles (forklift) regulating the way for flexibility

•Warning signs and signs and the location of the router can be detected in all

•Executive team in place all the production is visually dominated by

•To increase the viewing angle of the work accident rate drops

As Build System Benefits

Space will be acquired by cages systems the ratio between the volume of building materials consumed and other building materials according to their consumption rate is quite appropriate. The cost structure is created with the volume size is inversely proportional. These systems, to eliminate the need for piers in the usually dry and the ground level with a variety of methods are mounted in place. The system consists of prefabricated parts, you are prompted by a new-to-use conversion can be disassembled. Therefore eliminated mold and staging costs, the construction of the rapid completion of the equipment layout in the economy sağlamaktadır.Uzay lattice structure can provide useful Holder. Electricity, plumbing, ventilation channels, air conditioning, iklimleme accessories such as systems, this system in space arising from the formation of policy itself can easily find the location. These accessories can be included in every direction. Electrical connections were made from bars. Provision of daylight in the same space can be easily resolved by creating the window items.

Earthquake Against Benefits

90% of Turkey is an earthquake zone. The west and the Gulf area of the industry settled almost 100% in the earthquake zone. The recent earthquakes of us live and system construction technology has been made in the unconscious choices. Facilities in the earthquake zone will be recommended for most secure system of the structure of steel and steel with the light and space lattice system solutions are hiperstatik. Space lattice systems are highly hiperstatik system. Load both the withdrawal and transfer, the pressure will work. The system does not force employees to bend the big move of the opening is provided in the structural trust. Space lattice systems with other building systems such as 50% at a rate that is more lightweight. Weight of the structure with the effects of the earthquake as a linear increase proportional to the earthquake is less than the space lattice systems are affected. According to the system more flexible and sünektir reinforced concrete structures.

Cost Advantages

Static in terms of benefits, this system is a multi-carrier system compared to others are much more lightweight. Not only in the framework of the lack of a fixed load, the system shows itself to elements of the basis, depending on the cost is reduced significantly.
 
 Main elements of the space bar and cage system are nodes. These are pressure and tried to withdraw the steel material. Traditional production systems compared to the same amount of space created in cage systems used in the space volume and weight than the amount of material is small and lightweight. Construction of the system from the ground fixed and moving loads delivered to the basic system of the structure to be lighter because of less freight to move to smaller dimensions. These attributes of the space lattice structure of the system cost and reduces the construction process.
 
Steel construction materials, production, distribution and use of building systems has become common and cheaper than today's other construction materials can be used as the areas were economic. Increase the size of openings required for the steel structure to use is becoming more economical.
 
Cage systems where space is not the industrial structure according to the project are produced in the factory. This is an industrial mass production of building components as quick and economical means to obtain. Long time, the emergence of site-building and fixed costs that are preventing the construction industry has. Construction is done on-site assembly only. Quick configuration takes a very short assembly and the fixed costs such as construction sites and construction sites to eliminate costs. Installation of parts connected to each other and with a compression nut key is for. Continuity and sustainability of production in industrial plants is critical. In a short time to finish building the space between the cage systems in production a long time without having to renew facilities for the business as a quick construction method can be selected.
 
Traditional construction methods for building materials, structures and components from suppliers to create the site and the individual structural elements in construction sites are converted to. This is also often means of transport. Project components in the system according to the lattice structure of space in the factory has been manufactured to be assembled quickly on-site at one time to transport.
 
Space systems and other structures cage system to distinguish the most important feature to be assembled elsewhere in the disassembly of the structure components allows is to be implemented again. Such a thing can not be the case for reinforced concrete structures for the cost of steel is high.

1 - ) Şartnameler

* T.S 498 YAPI ELEMANLARININ,BOYUTLANDIRILMASINDA ALINACAK YÜKLER
* T.S 648 ÇELİK YAPILARIN HESAP VE YAPIM KURALLARI,
* AFET BÖLGELERİNDE YAPILACAK YAPILAR HAKKINDA YÖNETMELİK (1998) ESAS ALINMIŞTIR

2- ) Kullanılan Malzemeler ve Emniyet Gerilmeleri

Uzay kafes sistem elemanları çelik boru , konik , somun ve bulonlardan oluşmaktadır. Bu elemanlar kürelerde birleşmektedirler. Çubuklardaki basınç kuvveti kürelere somunlar vasıtası ile , çekme kuvveti ise bulonlar vasıtası ile aktarılmaktadır. Uzay kafes sistem elemanlarında kullanılan parçaların malzeme kaliteleri ve bunların emniyet gerilmeleri aşağıda verilmiştir.
 
BORULARDA : St.37 St.44 St.52
KÜRELERDE : St.60
BULONLARDA : 8.8 (8G) / 10.9 (10K)
SOMUNLARDA : St 37 K 4.8 (4S)
PİMLERDE : St.37 St 44
KONİKLERDE : St.37 St.44 St.52

2.1-) Somun Emniyet Gerilmeleri

Akma Sınırı
Emniyet Gerilmesi
3200 kg/cm 2
1920 kg/cm 2

2.2 - ) Bulon Emniyet Sistemleri

Kalite Kopma Sınırı Akma Sınırı Emniyet Gerilmesi
8.8 8000 kg/cm 2 6400 kg/cm 2 2560 kg/cm 2 (2910 kg/cm 2 )
10.9 10000 kg/cm 2 9000 kg/cm 2 3600 kg/cm 2 (4090 kg/cm 2 

2.3 - ) Boru Emniyet Gerilmesi

Kalite Kopma Sınırı Akma Sınırı Emniyet Gerilmesi
St. 37 3700kg/cm 2 2400kg/cm 2 1440 kg/cm 2 (1656 kg/cm 2 )
St. 44 4400kg/cm 2 2600kg/cm 2 1794 kg/ cm 2 (2063 kg/cm 2 )
St. 52 5200kg/cm 2 3600kg/cm 2 2160 kg/cm 2 (2484 kg/cm

2.4 - ) Küre Emniyet Gerilmesi

St. 60.................................: 2040 kg/cm 2 Yukarda verilen emniyet gerilmeleri T.S. 648 de belirtilen Esas Yükler (EY) içindir. Esas ve İlave Yükler (EİY) halinde parantez içindeki emniyet gerilmeleri kullanılacaktır.
 

3 - )Yük Değerleri

Uzay sistem elemanlarına etkiyen yükler hesapların yapıldığı Framecad adlı bilgisayar programı tarafından üst başlık düğüm noktalarına her düğümün alan payına göre yayılı yükten tekil yüke çevrilerek etki ettirilmektedir. Borular sadece eksenel çekme veya basınca çalışacak şekilde hesaplanmıştır.Aksi beyan edilmedikçe veya talep edilmedikçe borulara , moment meydana getirecek , boruya dik doğrultuda yük asılmayacaktır. Statik hesaplar yapılırken aşağıdaki yüklerden gerekli olanlar dikkate alınır. Şartname gereği alınması gereken yükler ;(HER PROJE İÇİN FARKLIDIR ÖRNEKTİR.)
*Uzay sistem zati yükü     14.90 kg/m 2
*Aşık+Kaplama yükü 15.00 kg/m 2
*Tesisat yükü 5.00 kg/m 2
*Kar yükü 90.00 kg/m 2
*Rüzgar yükü 80.00 kg/m 2
*Deprem yükü Şartnameye göre hesaplanmıştır.
*Sıcaklık tesiri D t = ± 25C

4 - ) Metodlar

 
Some Of Our Referances
Copyright 2012 © Ema Çelik Uzay Kafes Müh. ve İnş. San. Tic. Ltd. Şti. Her hakkı saklıdır. Netürk Bilişim